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The No-Name God

A Bible Study by Fred Kenison

 

7  PsalmsSong of Solomon


Knowledge of Jehovah

 

 

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Solomon

 

Summary Highlights of Chapter 7

Attributes of Jehovah revealed in Chapter 7

 

 

Psalms

 

David, the psalmist of Israel, gave his conception of what the man who wishes to be blessed should be doing. Psalms 1:1-2 says,

"Blessed the man who walks not in the counsel of the wicked, and stands not in the way of sinners, and sits not in the seat of scoffers. But (if) his delight in the law of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), and on his law he meditates day and night."

 

David wrote these beautiful psalms, many of which were to be sung to his god, Jehovah. Unlike the friends of Job, what David wrote can be accepted as truth because he was composing under the power of Jehovah’s spirit.  In II Samuel 23:2, David said,

"The spirit of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) speaks by me, his word upon my tongue."

 

We might point out, however, that new attributes of Jehovah are becoming more scarce the further we go through the Old Testament.

 

Speaking under the power of the spirit, David prophesied future events. In Psalms 2:7-9 he wrote,

"I will tell of the decree of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068). He said to me, You are my son; today I have begotten you. Ask of me, and I will make nations your heritage and the ends of the earth your possession. You shall break them with a rod of iron; dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel."

 

The fulfillment of this is left until later.

 

David said that when he called upon Jehovah,

" he heard me out of his holy hill" (Psalms 3:4).

 

David recognized that Jehovah’s presence was in Jerusalem on Mount Zion.

 

David, who had some of the spirit upon him for his duties, was one of only a select number who had spirit dwelling upon him. Therefore, he could receive an answer from the presence of Jehovah, represented by the glory cloud dwelling over the mercy seat.

 

In Psalms 4:4, David again spoke a truth, not only for his age, but for the millennial age also.

"But know Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) that has set the godly apart for himself."

 

Here is another attribute of Jehovah: he selects whomever he wishes to call his own.

 

In an opposite tone, Psalms 5:7 says,

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) abhors bloodthirsty and deceitful men."

 

The Old Testament was a time of law, not of grace. To understand it clearly, we must keep this in mind at all times.

 

Psalms 7:2 definitely states that David looks to Jehovah as his god, just as his ancestors did.

"O Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), my god (‘elohiym:H430), in thee do I take refuge: save me from my pursuers, and deliver me."

 

Thus far, all of the main characters of the Bible have acknowledged Jehovah as their god. When they speak of god, they are speaking of Jehovah, just as Job’s friends were speaking of Jehovah when they spoke of the almighty.

 

Psalms 7:9 states unequivocally,

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) judges the peoples."

 

Jehovah chose Israel as a nation wherein to place his name, but his concern is also for all other nations.

 

In Psalms 7:18, David gave some valid reasons for worshiping Jehovah.

"I will give thanks to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) due to his righteousness, and I will sing praise to the name of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) the most high."

 

Here, David also equated Jehovah with being the most high god. Some people claim these different references refer to other gods; but David does not!

 

In Psalms 8:1, David recognized his responsibility to obey Jehovah, his master.

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), our lord (‘adown:H113), how majestic thy name in all the world! Your praise reaches up to the heavens."

 

Again, adonai indicates master, someone who is to be obeyed.

 

David’s writing probably outstripped his understanding. Remember, he was writing as he was moved by holy spirit, and thus he would be capable of prophesying far beyond his knowledge. Psalms 9:8-9 is an example of this.

"But Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) sits enthroned for ever. He has established his throne for judgment, and he judges the world with righteousness, he judges the people with equity."

 

This refers to a still future time.

 

Psalms 10:1 asks,

"Why, O Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) dost thou stand afar off? Dost thou hide thyself in times of trouble?"

 

Here is another attribute of Jehovah: at times he will hide himself during our troubles. Most of the troubles people have, they bring upon themselves. Perhaps Jehovah hides himself at such times because he wants people to know that their sins produce consequences in our lives.

 

David acknowledged in Psalms 11:4 that Jehovah was a spiritual being.

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) [is] in the temple of his holiness. Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), his throne [is] in heaven; his eyes behold, his eyelids test the children of men."

 

In some instances, Jehovah revealed himself as a man. For example, the time when he came to Abraham’s camp and ate with him (Genesis 18:1-17). Although David knew there was a reminder of his presence with men in the temple at Jerusalem, he also understood Jehovah’s spiritual nature.

 

Psalms 13:6 says,

"But I have trusted in thy steadfast love; my heart shall rejoice in thy salvation. I will sing to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) because he has dealt bountifully with me."

 

David clearly recognized that salvation was not because of what he had done, but it was Jehovah’s salvation which he enjoyed. In context, this is a present tense salvation which David hoped for, and which he believed would come. He believed he would overcome his enemies!

 

In Psalms 18:3, David repeated the above comments, plus a bit more.

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer. My god (‘el:H410), my rock, in whom I take refuge; my shield and the horn of my salvation, my stronghold."

 

David acknowledged that Jehovah was his rock, or that which supported him, his foundation. Jehovah was also his fortress, or his place of safety from which he could battle the enemy; his shield, or that which guarded him in battle; and his salvation.

 

Psalms 22 is often referred to as a messianic psalm, or one which was referring to the messiah and the travails he would face when he arrived. It contains prophetic content, and it must be read carefully, examining it in the light of prophecy.

 

Verse 22:1 in the KJV begins,

"To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David."

 

However, the Analytical Key to the Old Testament says,

"To the choirmaster according to the Hind of the Dawn, a psalm to David."

 

"Hind of the Dawn" is a new term, and we have found no other reference to it thus far. Perhaps this was speaking of the holy spirit which gave these psalms "to David."

 

An interesting note is that although the KJV says that many of the Psalms are "of David," the scriptures actually say they were "to David."  The scriptures tell us that David spoke by holy spirit. Whether the two notations are the same is a matter of conjecture. More will be written about this psalm later in the study.

 

As a side note, many people assume that David wrote all of the poems after they were given "to him;" however, many were also given "to Asaph," the chief musician.

 

Psalms 24:4-5 says,

"Clean hands, and a pure heart, who does not lift up (his) soul and does not swear deceitfully, he will receive blessing from Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) and vindication from the god (‘elohiym:H430) of his salvation."

 

David again equated Jehovah as the god of a righteous man’s salvation. Also, again, David was speaking prophetically, which is clearly demonstrated by Psalms 24:7-8:

"Lift up your heads, O gates, and be lifted up, O ancient doors, that the king of glory may come in. Who is this, the king of glory? Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), strong and mighty, Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) mighty in battle."

 

In Psalms 25:7, David wrote,

"Remember not the sins of my youth or my transgressions. Remember me according to thy steadfast love, for thy goodness’ sake, O Yahweh (yehovah:H3068)."

 

Here, David was clearly recognizing that any good works he might have done were really Jehovah’s good works done through him. This is an interesting concept seldom found in the Old Testament scriptures. David also recognized that any forgiveness he received for his shortcomings was based on Jehovah’s steadfast love!

 

Psalms 28:8 reveals another attribute of Jehovah, though perhaps a different wording.

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) is the strength of them (his people). He is the refuge, victories, of his anointed."

 

Jehovah is the strength of those who would do well, and he gives them the victories. In the Old Testament, this was often evidenced when Jehovah, god of hosts, would lead Israel to victory in battle. This verse may also be observed in the context of prophecy for a later time.

 

Psalms 29:10 says,

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) sits enthroned over the flood; Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) sits enthroned as king for ever."

 

Again, David must have been speaking under the power of holy spirit in order to see so far down the aisles of time. Did he fully understand what he said? That is a good question, but a difficult one to answer with certainty.

 

Psalms 31:4 makes a statement of truth too often overlooked.

"Yea, thou art my rock and my fortress. Lead me for thy name’s sake and guide me."

 

Here, David put his service in the proper perspective. It was not for his benefit only, but for Jehovah’s name sake.

 

Psalms 33:13-15 says,

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) looks down from heaven. He sees all the sons of men. From where he sits enthroned he looks forth on all the inhabitants of the earth; he who fashions the hearts of them altogether and observes all their deeds."

 

Here, again, David pointed out that Jehovah was interested not only in Israel, but in all the sons of men.

 

The compassion of Jehovah, another attribute, is revealed in Psalms 34:19-20.

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) is near to the brokenhearted, and saves the crushed in spirit. Many are the afflictions of the righteous, but Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) delivers him out of them all."

 

Some people have the idea that once they are "saved," then they will have fewer problems, which may not be true. According to this verse, the righteous have many problems.

 

At times, David felt that Jehovah must be asleep. Psalms 35:23 says,

"Bestir thyself, and awake for my right, my god (‘elohiym:H430) and my lord (‘adonay:H136), for my cause."

 

Both the words elohim and adonai are used in regard to Jehovah.

 

Psalms 37:4 says,

"Take delight in Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), and he will give you the desires of your heart."

 

One of the reasons Jehovah would do this is because if people delight in him, the desires of their hearts are not likely to be selfish ones, but those which would bring glory to himself.  It may also be that Jehovah was saying that he would implant whatever desires are in their hearts.

 

Psalms 37:13 provides another attribute of Jehovah.

"The lord (‘adonay:H136) laughs at the wicked (at him), for he sees that his day is coming."

 

Jehovah has the ability to look far into the future and see that the wicked will be called to answer. Jehovah can wait; but can the wicked?

 

Psalms 37:39 says,

"The salvation of the righteous is from Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), their refuge in the time of trouble."

 

David was certain about the source of his salvation. However, in context, most of the salvation David describes is what today we would call "present tense salvation."  Time after time, David spoke of salvation in this manner.  [See our book, What Scripture Says About Salvation, for a thorough discussion of the three tenses of salvation.]

 

Psalms 41:14 says,

"Blessed Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), the god (‘elohiym:H430) of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting. Amen, and Amen."

 

Jehovah will always be the god of Israel. Nothing about this relationship will ever change, although Israel may have trouble accepting this truth about Jehovah.

 

David asked a rhetorical question in Psalms 44:21-22.

"If we had forgotten the name of our god (‘elohiym:H430), or spread forth our hands to a strange god (‘el:H410), would not god (‘elohiym:H430) discover this, for he knows the secrets of the heart."

 

Jehovah, spiritual being that he was in the Old Testament, could look upon the secrets of the heart.

 

Psalms 49-55 uses the word god rather than Jehovah. This is not as unusual as it may seem because people often spoke of Jehovah as their god.

 

Jehovah appears once in Psalms 56, when David speaks of praising Jehovah:

"In god (‘elohiym:H430) I praise a word; in Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) I praise a word." (Psalms 56:11).

 

Psalms 59:6 makes it abundantly clear that Jehovah is the god of which they spoke.

"And thou, Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), god (‘elohiym:H430) of hosts, god (‘elohiym:H430) of Israel, awake to punish all the nations; spare none of those who treacherously plot evil."

 

Many of the Psalms beyond Psalms 59 retell the experiences which Israel had with Jehovah in the wilderness, as well as later in their history. They tell how Jehovah, their god, led them, and how he gave them power over the nations. They also tell how he allowed them to be overwhelmed by other nations when they strayed.

 

When people today read the word "god" as it so often appears in the Psalms, many assume that this god is different than Jehovah. Psalms 71:4-5 provides a good example of why this is not true.

"O my god (‘elohiym:H430), rescue me from the hand of the wicked, from the grasp of the unjust and ruthless. For thou my hope, O lord (‘adonay:H136), Yahweh (yehovih:H3069), my trust from my youth."

 

Here, the words my god, elohim, indicate the psalmist’s lord, adonai, and his Yahweh. The three words were used interchangeably according to the desire of the speaker, depending on what aspect of relationship was to be in the forefront.

 

Some of the Psalms appeal to the god of hosts. Who is this god of hosts, or the one who gives victory to the armies of Israel? The clear answer is provided in Psalms 80:20.

"O Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), god (‘elohiym:H430) of hosts, restore us; let thy face shine that we may be saved."

 

This was what the Jews considered to be salvation; i.e., deliverance from enemies or presently besetting problems.

 

Psalms 86:8 is an interesting verse.

" There is none like unto thee among the gods (‘elohiym:H430), O lord (‘adonay:H136); nor are there any works like thine."

 

Here, adonai is compared to other gods and found to be pre-eminent among them. So much for those who contend there is only one god described in the scriptures. Not only are there many gods in the scriptures, but there is more than one god concerned with the good of mankind. We will have more to say about this later.

 

Psalms 89:7-8 says,

"For who in the skies can be compared to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), [who] among the sons of gods (‘el:H410) is like to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), a god (‘el:H410) feared in the council of the holy ones, great and terrible above all round about him?"

 

A careful reading of this scripture shows that Jehovah was being compared to "the sons of gods."  Was this an early indication that Jehovah, also, was a son; or, was this only a manner of speaking?

 

Psalms 94:1-3 notes,

"God (‘el:H410) of vengeance, Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), god (‘el:H410) of vengeance shine forth. Rise up, O judge of the earth, render their deserts to the proud. How long the wicked, O Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), how long the wicked shall exult?"

 

There have been earlier references to Jehovah’s vengeance, but this verse begins a litany of scriptures which are scattered throughout the rest of the Old Testament. Two attributes stand out here: Jehovah is a god of vengeance, and also a god of judgment.

 

Psalms 94:12 says,

"Blessed is the man whom thou dost chasten (him), O Yah (yahh:H3050), and out of thy law thou dost teach him."

 

Yah is often thought of as another name similar to Jehovah. However, some believe the word is only a "vocative particle," and not a word from which Jehovah is derived. This is the reason that we have not previously considered yah in this study.

 

The TDOT (Vol. 5, p. 502) points out,

"According to other scholars, the short form represents the original form of the divine name: according to Driver, divine names are never shortened in other Semitic languages, and it is therefore unlikely that so sacred a name as ‘Yahweh’ could be abbreviated."

 

Psalms 97:1-2 proclaims,

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) reigns; let the earth rejoice; let the many coastlands be glad. Clouds and thick darkness [are] round about him; righteousness and justice the foundation of his throne."

 

Earlier scriptures said that Jehovah dwelt in darkness. The psalmist was evidently speaking of Jehovah’s glory which dwelt in the darkness of the holy of holies in the temple.

 

This may also have been a reference to the glory cloud which surrounded Jehovah when he led the people out of Egypt, the same glory cloud that at other times filled the temple. That righteousness and justice underlies the basis of his throne, or rule over people, is an attribute that never changes!

 

Psalms 98:4-6 says,

"Make a joyful noise to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), all the earth break forth, give a ringing cry and sing praises. Sing praises to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) with the harp, with the lyre, and the sound of melody. With trumpets and sound of the horn make a joyful noise before the king, Yahweh (yehovah:H3068)."

 

Nothing had changed since the days of the tabernacle in the wilderness. Even in the days of the psalmist, people were still worshiping before Jehovah. They were not allowed into his actual presence, with the exception of the high priest, and this exception was granted only once a year.

 

Although the Old Testament scriptures sometimes speak about coming into the presence of Jehovah, this only entailed entering into either the court of the Jews, or that of the Gentiles. His presence, in reality, was hidden in the darkness of the holy of holies. When praying, they had to trust that Jehovah actually heard, and then wait for an answer. This must have been frustrating for the Israelites. They either had to worship a god they could not see, or fall into the idolatry of worshiping idols which they could see.

 

Psalms 103 is a personal favorite, and will be quoted in its entirety, not because it reveals any new attributes of Jehovah, but only because it provides a great blessing each time it is read.

"Bless thou Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), O my soul, and all that is within me the name of his holiness. Bless Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), O my soul, and forget not all his benefits, who forgives all your iniquity, who heals all your diseases, who redeems your life from the pit, who crowns you with steadfast love and mercy, who satisfies your ornaments with good so that you renew your earth like the eagle. Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) works vindication and justice for all who are oppressed. He made known his ways to Moses, his acts to the people of Israel. Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love. He will not always chide, he will not keep [his anger] for ever. He deals us not according to our sins, and not according to our iniquities does he requite us. For the height of the heavens above the earth, so great is his steadfast love [for] those who fear him. As far as the east from the west, so far does he remove our transgressions from us. As a father pities his children, so Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) pities those who fear him. For he knows our frame, he remembers that we are dust. As for man, like grass his days, like a flower of the field thus he flourishes, for the wind passes over it and it is gone, and knows it not its place any more. But the steadfast love of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) from everlasting to everlasting upon those who fear him and his righteousness to children’s children, to those who keep his covenant and remember his commandments to do them. Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) has established his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom rules over all. Bless you, Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), O his angels, mighty ones, who do his word, hearkening to the voice of his word. Bless Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), all his hosts, his ministers that do his will. Bless Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), all his works, all places of his dominion. Bless Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), O my soul."

 

In this psalm, the psalmist not only repeated many of the attributes of his god, Jehovah, but also mentioned the scope of his power, and that of his reign.

 

Psalms 105:8 says,

"He is mindful for ever his covenant, of the word that he commanded for a thousand generations."

 

Jehovah’s faithfulness to his covenant, or word, is what the Israelites regarded as his righteousness. Their faith hinged upon the fact that Jehovah would be truthful to his given word. Trouble arose for Israel when they forgot to be faithful to their promise to Jehovah (see Psalms 105:44-45).

 

Psalms 110:4 declares that,

"Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) has sworn, and will not change his mind; you [are] a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek."

 

Here is another spot where David was speaking prophetically about a coming event with sweeping consequences. Did he fully understand his own prophecy?  [The importance of this point is fully discussed in our book, The Hidden Meaning in Hebrews.]

 

Psalms 113:5-6 asks,

"Who is like Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), our god (‘elohiym:H430), who is seated on high, who looks far down upon the heavens and the earth!"

 

David had no small god, but a great god, high up, over all, and seated above all. Again, this refers to Jehovah as a spiritual being.

 

Psalms 116:15 says,

"Precious in the sight of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) [is] the death of his saints."

 

Here is an attitude of Jehovah which we have not encountered before. Jehovah considers the death of his saints to be a precious thing.

 

Psalms 118:20-23 says,

"This is the gate of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), the righteous shall enter through it. I thank thee that thou hast answered me and hast become salvation to me. The stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner. This has become from Yahweh (yehovah:H3068); it is marvelous in our eyes."

 

This is another occasion when David spoke as a prophet of things far beyond his own time. Later in our study we will more fully understand what he was referring to.

 

Psalms 119:75 says,

"I know, O Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), that thy judgments are right, and that in faithfulness thou hast afflicted me."

 

The psalmist understood that all of his troubles were from Jehovah, and that it was the faithfulness of Jehovah which brought him to this place of understanding. These troubles reflected Jehovah’s judgment of what he needed in order to develop into what Jehovah desired him to be. David believed Jehovah had a plan for his life, and that he was faithful in bringing that plan to fruition.

 

Psalms 121:1-2 says,

"(Shall) I lift up my eyes to the hills? From whence does my help come? My help [comes] from Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), who made heaven and earth."

 

The KJV indicates that the first sentence of this passage is a statement, but the manuscript shows that it is actually a question. Looking to the hills would be a reference to the idols in high places. The psalmist was not looking to the high places of the heathen for his help, but to Jehovah, his god, who made heaven and earth.

 

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Proverbs

 

Proverbs 1:7 points out that,

"The fear of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) (is) the beginning of knowledge; fools despise wisdom and instruction."

 

Standing in awe, or fear, of Jehovah is where we begin to learn the real meaning of life, or the beginning of knowledge. Those who do not have any fear of Jehovah are those who despise, or count of little worth, godly wisdom which is the correct application of knowledge, and instruction that they might understand more of the deeper things of Jehovah, their god. Many people of great intellect fall into the category of being fools. They think they are too wise, and have too much knowledge, to believe there is a god whom they should obey and have faith in.

 

Proverbs 1:29-32 gives the results of failing to fear Jehovah.

"Because they hated knowledge and they did not choose the fear of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068), they would none of my counsel, they despised all my reproof. Therefore shall they eat the fruit of their way, and they shall be sated with their own devices. For (by) the turning away of the simple shall kill them, and the complacence of fools destroys them."

 

The end of fools will not be pleasant. They will become filled to overflowing, or sated, with their own devices, which are not the way Jehovah would have them walk. They walk in pride instead of humility.

 

Proverbs 2:3-5 describes how we come to this beginning of knowledge.

"Yes, if you cry out for insight and for understanding, if you seek it like silver and you search for it as for hidden treasures, then you will understand the fear of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) and find the knowledge of god(‘elohiym:H430)."

 

This shows that we must sincerely desire to learn about Jehovah in order to succeed. This is a diligent search: cry out, raise your voice, search for it like hidden treasures; then, and only then, will you succeed. Learning what the word of God reveals about himself is not for the casual reader. It involves long, tedious work. However, the results are worth the effort, for then we begin to see God, not from a fleshly viewpoint, but from a spiritual one.

 

Unfortunately, too many settle for a fleshly viewpoint of God, which only confounds and leads either to denial or development of a "hip pocket" religion. A "hip pocket" religion can be compared to carrying a wallet. You only pull it out when you think you need it. No wonder God does not answer so many of us.

 

Proverbs 3:12 says,

"For whom he loves, Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) reproves, as a father the son in whom he delights."

 

This indicates the attitude Jehovah bears toward those whom he accounts as sons. It shows not only discipline, but loving care.

 

In describing the ways of man, Proverbs 5:23 says,

"He dies for lack of discipline, and he is lost because of his great folly."

 

This is the result of living for self, of not having faith in god. When people display faith, they will undergo the discipline of God, and he will guide them in the proper way.

 

Proverbs 6:17-19 lists seven things which are an abomination to Jehovah. However, keep in mind that this is only a partial list; others are noted elsewhere.

"Haughty eyes, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood, a heart that devises wicked plans, feet that make haste to run to evil, a false witness who breathes out lies, and a man who sows discord among brothers."

 

These are all part of the fleshly nature, a nature which is absolutely opposed to the oversight of Jehovah.

 

Proverbs 16:2 says,

"All the ways of a man [are] pure in his own eyes, but Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) weighs the spirit."

 

Here is another way in which Jehovah deals with his people. No matter what people may think of their own actions, Jehovah weighs, or evaluates, the spirit in which those actions were done. He looks upon the spirit to discern whether deeds were done to honor his name, or to honor the person doing them. People may judge their actions as good, but if the spirit in which they acted was wrong, then their acts are not righteous acts. Purpose is the determining factor of whether actions are righteous, or only good.

 

Another attribute of Jehovah is found in Proverbs 19:17.

"He who is kind to the poor lends to Yahweh (yehovah:H3068); and for his deed he will repay him."

 

The lesson here is that Jehovah regards wealth as a stewardship. Since Jehovah is the one who endows people with wealth, then they will answer for how they use that wealth. Too often, this aspect of stewardship is forgotten, or ignored.

 

Proverbs 21:1 says,

"The king’s heart streams of water in the hand of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068); he turns it wherever he will."

 

This scripture says that Jehovah, although not sitting on the throne himself, nevertheless directs the one who does sit on the throne. Kings, and other rulers, often refuse this guidance, and fall into trouble with God. Sometimes, the whole nation suffers because the king is the leader and guide.

 

Proverbs 21:29-30 says,

"A wicked man makes firm his face; but an upright man (considers) establishes his ways. No wisdom, no understanding, no counsel before Yahweh (yehovah:H3068)."

 

When wicked people stubbornly resist God or godly things, they will not hear understanding, wisdom, nor counsel. It is a waste of time and effort to confront such people. They are against Jehovah, and that position determines all their ways.

 

Proverbs 22:12 explains this further.

"The eyes of Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) keep watch over knowledge, and he overthrows the words of the faithless."

 

Eventually, such people will get their comeuppance from Jehovah.

 

Proverbs 25:2 points out,

"[It is] the glory of God (‘elohiym:H430) to conceal things; but the glory of kings to search things out."

 

It is never easy to know, understand, and properly apply knowledge, or wisdom, about the glory of God, or in this case, Jehovah. Those things must be searched out diligently.

 

The Student’s Hebrew Lexicon (p. 224) gives this definition of the words search out:

"to cut in, dig, Jer. 13:7, to dig into, poet. to paw, of spirited horses, Job 39:21. Fig. to search out, to spy, as an eagle its prey, Job 39:29."

 

This definition will help clarify a number of scriptures which refer to delving into the word to learn of the glory of Jehovah, the Old Testament god. The deeper things about the glory of Jehovah cannot be found by only reading the scriptures; they must be dug into.

 

Another attribute of Jehovah, how he reacts to those who act correctly toward an enemy, is described in Proverbs 25:21-22.

"If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink. For coals of fire you will heap on his head, and Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) will reward you."

 

People are individually ill-equipped to punish or judge others. Jehovah will reward those who refrain from judging and punishing an enemy.

 

Proverbs 28:5 provides further understanding:

"Evil men do not understand judgment; but those who seek Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) understand it completely."

 

Remember, this is referring to people individually. It is not applied to the government, which at times must judge and punish to maintain order in the community.

 

Proverbs 29:13 provides another attribute of Jehovah.

"The poor man and the oppressor meet together; Yahweh (yehovah:H3068) gives light to the eyes of both."

 

Neither the poor, nor those who oppress them, are left without light, or sufficient knowledge, for guidance.

 

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Ecclesiastes

 

According to Webster’s, the word ecclesiastes means,

"Fr. ekklesiastes, member of an assembly, fr ekklesia: a book of wisdom literature in canonical Jewish and Christian Scripture."

 

This book was written, according to verse 1:1, by

"the preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem."

 

Although this is commonly held to mean Solomon, that is far from certain.

 

At first, the preacher found that searching out wisdom was not very exciting. Ecclesiastes 1:13 says,

"And I applied my mind to see and to search out by wisdom all that is done under heaven; an unhappy business that god (‘elohiym:H430) has given to the sons of man to be busy with."

 

The key words are "I applied my mind." When people seek to understand "all that is done under heaven" with the fleshly mind, they always find it to be an unhappy business. This is always the normal experience of carnally minded people. It is frustrating and confounding to have knowledge of all the facts apparent in the scriptures, but to have no knowledge, or spiritual discernment, for how to apply them.

 

Ecclesiastes 2:24 is another favorite scripture.

"There is nothing better for a man than that he should eat and drink, and should see himself good in his toil; this also I saw, that it is from the hand of god (‘elohiym:H430)."

 

Some rich people become so penurious that they actually live below the poverty level, not even providing common necessities for themselves, let alone any luxuries. That is not what Jehovah, the god of the Old Testament, wanted for his people. He wanted them to enjoy the fruit of their labor, to appreciate his blessings.

 

Ecclesiastes 3:11 says,

"He has made everything beautiful in its time; also eternity he has put into their mind, yet so that the man cannot find out the work which god (‘elohiym:H430) has done from the beginning to the end."

 

Although the author knew about eternity, yet he never came to the full knowledge of the eternal work which Jehovah has done. We can all know some of it, but we will never know all of it.

 

Ecclesiastes 3:17 points out that,

"I said in my heart, god (‘elohiym:H430) will judge the righteous and the wicked; for (there) [is] a time there for every matter and for every work."

 

Ecclesiastes 5:1 warns,

"Be not rash with your mouth, and let not your heart be hasty to utter a word before god (‘elohiym:H430); for god (‘elohiym:H430) is in heaven and you upon earth. Therefore, let your words be few."

 

Too often, especially in times of trouble, people are prone to make many promises to God if he will deliver them from their situation. When they are delivered, most of them immediately forget their promises and vows to God. The question is, does God forget?  Ecclesiastes 5:3 says,

"When you vow a vow to god (‘elohiym:H430), do not delay paying it, for he has no pleasure in fools. Pay what you vow."

 

This verse clearly explains the previous verse. It is best not to make rash statements or promises.

 

Ecclesiastes 9:7 is for those who say that all alcoholic drinks are an abomination, and that the Bible teaches total abstinence from them.

"Go, eat your bread with enjoyment, and drink your wine with a merry heart; for god (‘elohiym:H430) has already approved what you do."

 

Even people who do not drink should love this verse.

 

Ecclesiastes 12:7 says,

"And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to god (‘elohiym:H430) who gave it."

 

The body, or dust, returns to the earth from which it came. Likewise, the spirit returns to its origin.

 

The author of Ecclesiastes closed with this comment in 12:13-14:

"The end of the matter, all has been heard: Fear god (‘elohiym:H430), and keep his commandments, for this is the wholeness of man. For god (‘elohiym:H430) will bring every deed into judgment, on every secret thing, whether good or evil."

 

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Song of Solomon

 

This book contains none of the words we have been studying. However, it is a wonderful book about loving and caring for one another. It also comments quite extensively upon the joy of sex. For all those who claim that sex is only to propagate other human beings, this book must be quite puzzling. Some have referred to this as the pornographic book of the Bible, and in so doing, have completely missed Jehovah’s attitude toward sex within the marriage context.

 

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Summary Highlights of Chapter 7

 

# New attributes of Jehovah become more scarce the further we go

     through the Old Testament.

 

# The Old Testament was a time of law, not of grace. To understand it

     clearly, we must keep this in mind at all times.

 

# Jehovah chose Israel as a nation wherein to place his name, but his

     concern is also for all other nations.

 

# Most of the troubles people have, they bring upon themselves. Perhaps

     Jehovah hides himself at such times because he wants people to know

     that their sins produce consequences in our lives.

 

# In some instances, Jehovah revealed himself as a man.

 

# David clearly recognized that any good works he might have done

     were really Jehovah’s good works done through him. This is an

     interesting concept seldom found in the Old Testament scriptures.

     David also recognized that any forgiveness he received for his

     shortcomings was based on Jehovah’s steadfast love!

 

# David pointed out that Jehovah was interested not only in Israel, but in

     all the sons of men.

 

# Some people have the idea that once they are "saved," then they will

     have fewer problems. According to this verse, the righteous have many

     problems.

 

# Jehovah will always be the god of Israel. Nothing about this

     relationship will ever change, although Israel may have trouble

     accepting this truth about Jehovah.

 

# Many of the Psalms retell the experiences which Israel had with

     Jehovah in the wilderness, as well as later in their history. They tell how

     Jehovah, their god, led them, and how he gave them power over the

     nations. They also tell how he allowed them to be overwhelmed by

     other nations when they strayed.

 

# The Jews considered salvation to be deliverance from enemies or

     presently besetting problems.

 

# Nothing had changed since the days of the tabernacle in the

     wilderness. Even in the days of the psalmist, people were still

     worshiping before Jehovah. They were not allowed into his actual

     presence, with the exception of the high priest, and this exception was\

     granted only once a year.  Although the Old Testament scriptures

     sometimes speak about coming into the presence of Jehovah, this only

     entailed entering into either the court of the Jews, or that of the

     Gentiles. His presence, in reality, was hidden in the darkness of the

     holy of holies. When praying, they had to trust that Jehovah actually

     heard, and then wait for an answer.

 

# Jehovah’s faithfulness to his covenant, or word, is what the Israelites

     regarded as his righteousness. Their faith hinged upon the fact that

     Jehovah would be truthful to his given word.

 

# David believed Jehovah had a plan for his life, and that he was faithful

     in bringing that plan to fruition.

 

# The psalmist (Psalms 121:1-2) was not looking to the high places of the

     heathen for his help, but to Jehovah, his god, who made heaven and

     earth.

 

# Standing in awe, or fear, of Jehovah is where we begin to learn the real

     meaning of life, or the beginning of knowledge.

 

# Many people of great intellect fall into the category of being fools. They

     think they are too wise, and have too much knowledge, to believe there

     is a god whom they should obey and have faith in.

 

# Learning what the word of God reveals about himself is not for the

     casual reader. We must sincerely desire to learn, which involves long,

     tedious work. However, the results are worth the effort, for then we

     begin to see God, not from a fleshly viewpoint, but from a spiritual one.

 

# When people display faith, they will undergo the discipline of God, and

     he will guide them in the proper way.

 

# God looks upon the spirit to discern whether deeds were done to honor

     his name, or to honor the person doing them.  Purpose, or motive, is

     the determining factor of whether actions are righteous, or only good.

 

# Jehovah wanted them to enjoy the fruit of their labor, to appreciate his

     blessings.

 

# In times of trouble, people are prone to make many promises to God if

     he will deliver them from their situation. When they are delivered, most

     of them immediately forget their promises and vows to God. The

     question is, does God forget?

 

# The body, or dust, returns to the earth from which it came. Likewise,

     the spirit returns to its origin.

 

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Attributes of Jehovah revealed in Chapter 7

 

# Jehovah selects whomever he wishes to call his own.

 

# Jehovah, at times, may hide himself during our troubles.

 

# Jehovah is the strength of those who would do well, and he gives them

     the victory.

 

# Jehovah has compassion for the broken-hearted, and poor in spirit.

 

# Jehovah delivers the righteous from their afflictions.

 

# Jehovah has the ability to look far into the future, and see that the

     wicked will be called to answer.

 

# Jehovah is a god of vengeance, and also a god of judgment.

 

# Jehovah's righteousness and justice, the basis of his throne, or rule over

     people, never changes!

 

# Jehovah considers the death of his saints to be a precious thing.

 

# Jehovah displays both discipline and loving care toward those whom he

     accounts as sons.

 

# Jehovah weighs, or evaluates, the spirit in which our actions are done.

 

# Jehovah regards wealth as a stewardship.

 

# Jehovah will reward those who refrain from judging and punishing an

     enemy.

 

# Jehovah provides everyone with light, or sufficient knowledge, for

     guidance.

 

 

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October 2009

 

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